Principles of Operation
P/N 7010-0926 1-3
channels can be used to track any one of the GPS or GLONASS
signals. The number of channels available allows the receiver to track
all visible GPS and Glonass satellites at any time and location.
An internal GPS+GLONASS L1 antenna equipped with a low noise
amplifier (LNA) and the receiver’s radio frequency (RF) device are
connected with a coaxial cable. The wide-band signal received is
down-converted, filtered, digitized, and assigned to different
channels. The receiver processor controls the process of signal
Once the signal is locked in the channel, it is demodulated and
necessary signal parameters (carrier and code phases) are measured.
Also, broadcast navigation data are retrieved from the navigation
GNSS Overview
Currently, the following three global navigation satellite systems
(GNSS) offer line-of-site radio navigation and positioning, velocity,
and time services on a global, all-weather, 24-hour scale to any user
equipped with a GNSS tracking receiver on or near the Earth’s
GPS – the Global Positioning System maintained and operated by
the United States Department of Defense. For information on the
status of this system, visit the US Naval Observatory website
(http://tycho.usno.navy.mil/) or the US Coast Guard website
GLONASS – the Global Navigation Satellite System maintained
and operated by the Russian Federation Ministry of Defense. For
information on the status of this system, visit the Ministry of
Defense website (http://www.glonass-center.ru/frame_e.html).
GALILEO – an upcoming global positioning system maintained
and operated by Galileo Industries, a joint venture of several
European space agencies working closely with the European
Space Agency. Unlike GPS and GLONASS, this is a civil
endeavor and is currently in the development and validation
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