3. Whole-wheat flour
Whole-wheat flour is ground from grain. It contains wheat skin and gluten. Whole-wheat
flour is heavier and more nutritious than common flour. The bread made by whole-wheat
flour is usually smaller in size. Many recipes therefore combine whole-wheat flour with plain
bread flour to achieve the best result.
4. Black wheat flour
Black wheat flour, also called “rough flour,” is a kind of high-fiber flour, and is similar to
whole-wheat flour. To obtain a large loaf size after rising, it must be used in combination
with a high proportion of bread flour.
5. Self-rising flour
A type of flour that contains baking powder, self-rising flour is often used for making cakes.
6. Corn flour and Oatmeal flour
Corn flour and oatmeal flour are ground from corn and oatmeal. They are the additive
ingredients in making “rough” bread, used for enhancing flavor and texture.
7. Sugar
Sugar is a very important ingredient in bread as it sweetens the taste and enhances the
color. It also nourishes the yeast in bread. White sugar is largely used. Brown sugar,
powdered sugar, or cotton sugar may also be used in certain recipes.
8. Yeast
After yeasting process, the yeast will produce carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide will
expand bread and make the inner fiber soften. However, fast-breeding yeast needs the
carbohydrates in sugar and flour as nourishment.
1 tsp. active dry yeast = 3/4 tsp. instant yeast
1.5 tsp. active dry yeast = 1 tsp. instant yeast
2 tsp. active dry yeast = 1.5 tsp. instant yeast
Yeast must be stored in the refrigerator as the fungus in it will be killed at high temperature.
Before using, check the production date and storage life of your yeast. Store it in the
refrigerator as soon as possible after each use. Usually the failure of bread rising is caused
by the bad yeast.
The steps below will determine whether your yeast is fresh and active.
(1) Pour 1/2 cup warm water 113 - 122°F (45 - 50°C) into a measuring cup.
(2) Put 1 tsp. white sugar into the cup and stir, then sprinkle 2 tsp. yeast over the water.
(3) Place the measuring cup in a warm place for about 10 minutes. Do not stir the water.
(4) The mixture should produce up to 1 cup of froth. If not, the yeast is dead or inactive.
9. Salt
Salt is necessary to improve bread’s flavor and crust color. But salt can restrain yeast from
rising. Never use too much salt in a recipe. Loaf size will be larger without salt.
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