5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
100
5.1.6.1 Normalization
Normalization is the simplest method of calibration as it involves measurement of only
one calibration standard for each S-parameter.
§1-port (reflection) S-parameters (S11, S22) are calibrated by means
of a SHORT or an OPEN standard, estimating reflection tracking
error term Er.
§2-port (transmission) S-parameters (S21, S
12) are calibrated by
means of a THRU standard, estimating transmission tracking
error term Et.
This method is called normalization because the measured S-parameter at each
frequency point is divided (normalized) by the corresponding S-parameter of the
calibration standard.
Normalization eliminates frequency-dependent attenuation and phase offset in the
measurement circuit, but does not compensate for errors of directivity, mismatch or
isolation. This constrains the accuracy of the method.
Note Normalization can also be referred to as response open,
response short or response thru calibration depending
on the standard being used: an OPEN, SHORT or THRU
respectively.
5.1.6.2 Directivity Calibration (Optional)
The Analyzer offers optional directivity (Ed) calibration feature, which can be used in
combination with reflection normalization by means of additional measurement of a
LOAD standard. Auxiliary directivity correction increases the accuracy of
normalization.
5.1.6.3 Isolation Calibration (Optional)
The Analyzer offers optional isolation (Ex) calibration to be combined with the
following three methods of calibration:
§transmission normalization,
§one-path two-port calibration,
§full two-port calibration.
This calibration is performed by isolation measurement using LOAD standards
connected to the both test ports of the Analyzer. Isolation calibration can be omitted in
most of tests as the signal leakage between the test ports of the Analyzer is negligible.
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