TABLE OF CONTENTS
4
4.8.4 Data Format Setting ...........................................................................................78
4.9 Scale Setting .............................................................................................................80
4.9.1 Rectangular Scale...............................................................................................80
4.9.2 Rectangular Scale Setting...................................................................................80
4.9.3 Circular Scale ....................................................................................................81
4.9.4 Circular Scale Setting.........................................................................................81
4.9.5 Automatic Scaling..............................................................................................81
4.9.6 Reference Level Automatic Selection.................................................................82
4.9.7 Electrical Delay Setting......................................................................................82
4.9.8 Phase Offset Setting...........................................................................................83
4.10 Measurement Optimizing.......................................................................................84
4.10.1 IF Bandwidth Setting .........................................................................................84
4.10.2 Averaging Setting ..............................................................................................84
4.10.3 Smoothing Setting..............................................................................................85
4.11 Mixer Measurements .............................................................................................86
4.11.1 Mixer Measurement Methods.............................................................................86
4.11.2 Frequency Offset Mode......................................................................................87
4.11.3 Automatic Adjustment of Offset Frequency........................................................89
4.11.3.1 Setting of Offset Frequency Automatic Adjustment.....................................90
5CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT.................................................... 92
5.1 General Information..................................................................................................92
5.1.1 Measurement Errors...........................................................................................92
5.1.2 Systematic Errors...............................................................................................93
5.1.2.1 Directivity Error..........................................................................................93
5.1.2.2 Source Match Error.....................................................................................93
5.1.2.3 Load Match Error........................................................................................93
5.1.2.4 Isolation Error.............................................................................................94
5.1.2.5 Reflection Tracking Error............................................................................94
5.1.2.6 Transmission Tracking Error.......................................................................94
5.1.3 Error Modeling ..................................................................................................95
5.1.3.1 One-Port Error Model .................................................................................95
5.1.3.2 Two-Port Error Model.................................................................................96
5.1.4 Analyzer Test Ports Defining .............................................................................97
5.1.5 Calibration Steps................................................................................................98
5.1.6 Calibration Methods...........................................................................................99
5.1.6.1 Normalization ...........................................................................................100
5.1.6.2 Directivity Calibration (Optional)..............................................................100
5.1.6.3 Isolation Calibration (Optional).................................................................100
5.1.6.4 Full One-Port Calibration..........................................................................101
5.1.6.5 One-Path Two-Port Calibration .................................................................101
5.1.6.6 Full Two-Port Calibration .........................................................................101
5.1.6.7 Sliding Load Calibration ...........................................................................102
5.1.6.8 Unknown Thru Calibration........................................................................102
5.1.6.9 TRL Calibration........................................................................................103
5.1.6.10 Multiline TRL Calibration.........................................................................105
5.1.7 Calibration Standards and Calibration Kits .......................................................107
5.1.7.1 Definitions and Classes of Calibration Standards.......................................107
5.1.7.2 Types of Calibration Standards..................................................................107
5.1.7.3 Methods of Calibration Standard Defining.................................................108
5.1.7.4 Calibration Standard Model.......................................................................108
5.1.7.5 Data-Based Calibration Standards .............................................................110
5.1.7.6 Scope of Calibration Standard Definition...................................................110
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