5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
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5.1.3.2 Two-Port Error Model
For a two-port measurement, two signal flow graphs are considered. One of the graphs
describes the case where port 1 is the stimulus source, the other graph describes the case
where port 2 is the stimulus source.
The signal flow graphs of errors effect in a two-port system are represented in figure
5.2:
Figure 5.2 Two-port error model
Where:
§S11a, S21a, S12a, S22a – true values of the DUT parameters;
§S11m, S
21m, S
12m, S
22m – measured values of the DUT
parameters.
For normalization the stimulus value is taken equal to 1. All the values used in the
model are complex.
The measurement result in a two-port system is affected by twelve systematic error
terms.
S21a
Ex1
S21a
Et2
Er1
S22a
Et1
S12a
S11a
Ed1 Es1
Port 2
S11m
El1
1
S21m
Port 1
Et2 S12a
Es2
1
Ex2
Ed2
S22a
S11a
S22m
Er2
S12m
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